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Scales: the research levels of understanding, the functional level of dynamics, the levels where hosts and parasites interact, etc., etc.

alternate view


level n

5 population genetics,

4 physiology, individual response, laboratory, experiment (e.g., immune challenges)

3 habitat compatibility, organism, ??? exist ?
2 behavior, controlled semi-closed biotopes, groups

1 Ecosystem, ecology, in situ observations, biocoenoses